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The Science of Airsoft
Airsoft, like any other sport, involves many scientific principles that go relatively unnoticed. In the heat of battle, one rarely worries about anything like the transfer of kinetic energy. Although knowing the physics of airsoft won’t really help you in the game, it’s good to know the principles. On the other hand, knowledge of pellet ballistics can help you in the game.
Pellets transmit a very small amount of kinetic energy mainly due to their size. Energy transfer is basically the force of impact. The energy transfers of Airsoft and paintball were compared, and paintball transfers significantly more energy. Energy transfers are measured in joules, an SI derived unit of energy. A standard 0.20g BB traveling at 300 ft/s delivers 0.8 joules, while a standard paintball traveling at the same speed delivers almost 12 joules. Energy transfer can actually be calculated using a mathematical formula; E = 1/2mv2, where E is joules, m is mass in kilograms, and v is velocity in meters per second. Because paintballs transfer more kinetic energy, they can be considered more damaging than airsoft pellets.
The weight of airsoft pellets greatly affects their velocity and trajectory. The lighter the pellet, the faster it moves, but it’s also less accurate because it’s more susceptible to environmental factors like wind. Heavier pellets have straighter trajectories, so lighter pellets are preferred, but in many cases heavier pellets cannot be used because the airsoft gun using them is not strong enough to propel the pellets forward at high speeds. Therefore, players who want to use pellets heavier than 0.25g usually have to upgrade their gun. Another advantage of heavy pellets is that they decelerate slowly, unlike light pellets that start quickly but lose speed quickly. Airsoft snipers typically use 0.30g pellets due to their high stability, but snipers can go up to 0.43g (although very expensive upgrades are required to use this class of pellets). The heaviest pellet is .88g, which is never used in airsoft because it is incredibly slow, not to mention very dangerous, since it is usually made of steel.
Pellet velocity is primarily determined by the tension of the spring used to propel the pellet, or the type of gas used in gas airsoft guns. Energy transfer is relative to pellet velocity, and velocity is also strongly affected by weight. For example, a 0.12 gram pellet using 0.800 J (the standard airsoft energy rate) of energy will initially travel at 375 fps. However, a 0.20g pellet using the same amount of energy only travels at about 280 fps and a 0.45g pellet at about 200 fps. For a 0.45g pellet to reach 375 fps the velocity of a 0.12g pellet would need to use more than 2.50 J of energy.
Bernoulli’s principle is the method by which pellets fly. Interestingly, this is also the principle by which airplanes take off. Bernoulli’s principle states that fluid velocities increase with decreasing pressure. In relation to airsoft, there is a relatively high velocity fluid (air) above the pellet, which means that the pressure above the airsoft pellet is lower than the pressure below it because there is less air flowing under the pellet. is above it. Therefore, the pressure under the airsoft pellet pushes and lifts the pellet, allowing it to fly for a long time. Hopper systems in airsoft guns apply recoil to the pellets, making the air move faster along the top of the pellet and creating a greater pressure difference between the top and bottom.
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