Determine The Chemical Formula For The Molecule On The Left. Chemistry – Matter and the Divisions of Matter

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Chemistry – Matter and the Divisions of Matter

Matter is all the things around you. It is the food you eat, the air you breathe and the clothes you wear. Even you are made of matter. Therefore, you need to know the different types, forms and properties of matter.

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. Mass is the amount of inertia of matter and volume is the amount of space occupied by matter. Inertia is resistance to change, and the greater the inertia, the greater the mass.

SUBSTANCE DISTRIBUTIONS

Matter is often divided into two categories: pure substances and mixtures. It is important that you are able to distinguish one form of matter from another so that you can describe the changes you observe.

Pure substances consist of one material with a specific composition and specific properties. Pure substances are divided into two groups: elements and compounds.

Elements are the simplest forms of chemical substances and cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means. Examples are hydrogen (H), sulfur (S) or gold (Au). The simplest form of an element is an atom.

Compounds are chemical combinations of elements that can be described by a chemical formula and that can only be separated by chemical means. Examples of compounds are water, sugar and salt. The simplest forms of a compound are molecules or formula units.

MIXTURES

Blends are all around you. A salad is a mixture of vegetables, a glass of soda is a mixture of water, sugar and flavoring, and air is a mixture of gases such as nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Mixtures are physical combinations of two or more substances of different composition, with different properties, which can be separated by ordinary physical processes. Mixtures are usually divided into two main groups: those that are homogeneous and those that are heterogeneous.

Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout and do not separate into phases when left alone. Many homogeneous mixtures are solutions consisting of a solute and a solvent. A solute is a material that dissolves and a solvent is a material that causes dissolution. The solutions are completely dissolved and see through.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, where the resulting material has metallic properties. Alloys are usually made to improve the properties of the elements that make them up. For example, steel is much stronger than iron, which is its main component.

A heterogeneous mixturethey have no definite composition and separate into phases when left alone. Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated by conventional physical means. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures are blood, Italian salad dressing, and soda pop.

Another type of mixture is a colloid. A colloid is a suspension that does not separate because the particles are not completely dissolved and remain suspended, making the mixture cloudy. This turbidity, called the Tyndall effect, is caused by the scattering of light by suspended particles.

The solution does not scatter light because the particles are at the molecular level and too small to reflect light. However, colloidal particles are large enough to reflect light, yet small enough not to settle. Examples of the Tyndall effect are the scattering of light from car headlights in fog and the beam of light from dust particles.

Colloids formed from any combination of solids, liquids, or gases (except mixtures of non-reactive gases, which are true solutions). Aerosols, foams, emulsions, and sols are different types of colloids. Examples of colloids include shaving cream, whipped cream and gelatin.

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