Find The Formula For The Function Represented By The Integral Empowerment of Women

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Empowerment of Women

INTRODUCTION:

“Nature gave women too much power. Law gives them too little.” -William Henry

Introduction:

India is a democratic and political country with a well-functioning administrative structure and a pre-existing mixed economy with rich experience in private sector activities. India also has a large pool of skilled labor and an entrepreneurial class available, reasonably good basic infrastructure, and a good track record of past international commitments.

In this highly competitive world, the development of society is greatly influenced by the productive contribution of each member. The contribution of women active in various spheres of life cannot be ignored. But experience shows that the benefits of development are not shared equally among all people.

Status of Women in Indian Society:

Since the beginning of time, women have faced the challenges of coping with a male chauvinistic society. Even after several years of planned development in India, the status of women in our country is low and their socio-economic conditions are much more depressed than that of men. The most important factor that has influenced women’s non-participation in decision-making and governance is the private-public divide that relates to men and women. Women’s place in the private sphere is related to the household. In contrast, the public is associated with political authority, public decision-making, productive work, and masculinity. Such assumptions have always prevented women from negotiating in public domain, and they find themselves criticized for their inadequacies or patronized by men. Recent experience of structured adaptation shows that women are the most marginalized groups. They bear a disproportionate share of the burden, illiteracy and unemployment.

Challenges facing women:

o Gender inequality in school attendance and literacy rates

o Gender inequality in wage rates

o Women’s work and livelihood opportunities

o Causes of gender-based poverty

o Infant and maternal mortality rates

o restrictive fertility control practices

o violence against women

o Women’s vulnerability in crisis situations

o Representation of women in the media

Serious disappointment in some areas:

The marginalization of women as a specific species has placed women with hereditary disabilities under their feet. By now, it is generally accepted that unless women form a “critical mass” of at least one-third of decision-makers, their presence will make little difference to governance outcomes. The experiences of different countries show that the struggle is on, but the mainstreaming of gender equality as an institution and the process of cultural transformation should continue to eliminate gender bias in development and governance frameworks.

Impact of education and technology:

The challenge of development in the broadest sense is to improve the quality of life, which generally requires better education, higher standards of health and nutrition, a cleaner environment, more equal opportunities, greater individual freedom and a richer cultural life. Development, which is a human-centered process, is obvious, but until women reach the same level as men, special attention must be paid to empowerment. Empowerment is a multidimensional process that enables a person to realize their potential. In the light of the above background, it is clear that women empowerment changes the destinies of nations.

Education is the most important instrument through which human resources can be developed. Education enables people to acquire basic skills and inculcate capabilities that help raise the social and economic status of women. Education helps expand women’s economic opportunities. Higher female literacy is associated with better hygiene, lower infant mortality, better family nutrition, lower birth rates, and lower population growth rates. Education has been included in successive Five Year Plans as a major program for women’s development.

Today, women are an integral part of the new economic order and play an important role in the economy. In India, women from lower income groups were the first to enter the labor market to earn a living, followed by middle class women. Due to the development of education and technology, middle class women prefer white collar jobs more. The economic and social empowerment of women in any society is affected by the extent of their involvement in service activities outside the household. Self-help groups play an important role in raising the economic and social status of women in society.

A self-help group is a voluntarily formed homogeneous group of rural poor formed to save whatever amount they can conveniently save from their income and mutually agree to contribute to a common fund to be lent to members for their productive and emergency needs. The basic principles of self-help groups are group approach, mutual trust, organization of poor, manageable small groups, group cohesion, thrift, demand-based lending and women-friendly loans. SHG is fast emerging as a powerful and alternative banking structure to cater to the needs of its members, mainly women.

All in all, the self-image of women as a respectable source of power improves significantly both inside and outside the family, they spend the improved income on the education and nutrition of their children, thus paving the way for the development of human resources in the villages.

* Impact of women participation in SHGs

(in two to three years)…..(Results of some independent studies)

oThe average value of assets (livestock, durable goods, etc.) per household increased by 72.3%. 6,843 (before SHG) to Rs. 11,793

o59 percent of the sampled households reported an increase in assets.

oHousing conditions improved

oAll members developed the habit of saving, previously only 23% of households

oAverage annual savings per household has been recorded at more than three times Rs. 460 to Rs. 1444

oAverage loans per year per household increased by Rs. 4,282 to Rs. 8,341.

o The share of consumer loans fell from 50% to 25%.

o70% of the loans taken in the post-SHG situation were for income generation purposes.

oAverage net income per household increased by 33%. 20,177 to Rs. 26.88

Impact on Empowerment

Related to economic issues

% members

contributing to the family’s income

65

o% share of family income contribution

40

improvement of financial condition

89

of a greater contribution to household income after joining the group

74

when making financial decisions

60

Related to self-development

o (of them) was not able to write before, but is now able to write

their names (after joining the group

100

not formally educated, now read forms in banks

42

read newspapers regularly or occasionally

41

they are more confident in making independent decisions

66

ofel recognized in the family

59

other women consult more and more frequently

44

I feel more confident when interacting with people

75

I feel more confident in doing different things

with institutions with which they interact regularly

59

regularly attend village meetings

41

cast their vote in the last local elections and 96

Communicating with others and making local decisions

*Source: Status of SHG – Bank Linkage Program as on 31 March 2004, NABARD.

Recommendations:

o Empower women to overcome obstacles and limitations to their economic productivity.

oAddressing gender gaps in governance

o Creation of various institutions for good governance

o Form and strengthen women’s groups to actively participate in social change.

oEliminate illiteracy through women’s participation in education

o Empower women to use modern science and technology

o Flooding rural areas with quality SHG

o Encourage non-governmental organizations

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