How Do You Clear Cells In Excel Without Clearing Formulas How to Do Research for the Award of a PhD Degree in Management Studies?

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How to Do Research for the Award of a PhD Degree in Management Studies?

The main objectives of the Ph.D. investigation

Evaluators verify certain important research results of the Ph.D.

(a) Ph.D. the main goal of the endeavor. the prize should be the creation of new knowledge.

(b) The knowledge should be useful to industry or the academic community.

(c ) It should bridge the gap between current knowledge and required knowledge.

(d) It should clear doubts or find answers to key questions that have been lingering in the minds of practitioners and scholars for a long time. These questions are called “dilemmas” or “hypotheses”.

What cannot be called a PhD:

1. Collecting materials from various sources and writing a voluminous book does not qualify for a Ph.D. investigation’. Ph.D. research does not mean writing a book.

2. Writing a thesis based on some book or some newspaper article or website is not a PhD. investigation.

3. Ph.D. is not a survey with some questions (like: Are you married? How many children do you have? How long have you been working? Which soap do you prefer? ) or some form-filling feedback. Standardized instruments (also called measures, scales, standard scales, and published scales) should be used in research.

How do I start research for a PhD in Management Studies?

1. The researcher must conduct a comprehensive literature review; he needs to download up to 500 research articles from online libraries like: ebscohost, emeraldinsight, proquest, jostor etc. The primary purpose of the literature review is to: identify research gaps. This means that you need to understand where current research has stopped or what has been left unexplored. The gap thus found can be converted into hypotheses.

2. Hypotheses – Framing (formulating hypotheses or identifying hypotheses) is the most critical part of research. Hypotheses are research questions or dilemmas facing academia that are waiting for a researcher like you to solve them.

3. A hypothesis looks like a question. For example, “Are women more satisfied with their jobs than men?” is a hypothesis. This is just an example. (A scientist like you may have already solved this.) Ideally, a Ph.D. the thesis should include the resolution of 10-50 of the most critical and interesting hypotheses.

4. A literature review will reveal to you which hypotheses were already solved and you don’t need to solve again. Literature does not mean anything you find in newspapers, magazines, websites, textbooks, etc. The literature should primarily include articles based on empirical research. An empirical study is one that is based on experiments, observations, and data collected through scientifically developed research tools. Research articles are found in scientific journals, especially online journals carried by online libraries like emeraldinsight, jstor, proquest, ebscohost, etc.

5. A literature review, if done carefully, provides the researcher with a proper background for logical documentation of his research. The background presented in the thesis explains how the research question or research question developed or how it was understood until now, where it stands now and what the researcher is doing with it.

6. The literature review provides: (1) research questions/hypotheses, (2) rationale for the study/research topic.

7. It goes without saying that the research topic should be determined only after a thorough literature review. It is rather sad that universities ask for research topic and hypotheses already at the time of application (when the candidate has not yet read a single research article). Ideally, universities should have identified research questions/hypotheses; but this is never the case with our universities.

8. Important findings should be noted when conducting a literature review. These notes are the main part of the thesis, with titles such as: introduction, background, literature review, etc. All cited articles should be properly listed under references. There should be cross-links between the articles indicated in the list of references and the text of the thesis. What you mark in the main text is called an in-text reference. This means that if you have something in the reference list, it should be in the main text. In-text referencing looks like this (for example): (Meesala, 2011). This should be expanded in the reference list. The way these references are noted is called academic referencing style, academic format, academic style, etc.

9. The citation style follows a certain order when noting authors’ names, year of publication, etc., and also punctuation marks. Read the information by googling it. There are many academic formats such as Harvard style, APA style, MLA style, CMS style, etc.

10. Referencing your thesis is very easy if you know how to use MS Word 2007 ‘references’.

What to do after identifying hypotheses?

If no hypotheses are identified, then there is no research. Researching management problems is about solving hypotheses, not writing books, mind you. Formulation of hypotheses is followed by research design. Research design is about determining the ways to collect and analyze data (primary data).

Once the hypotheses are clearly identified, the constructs are clearly identified and available at your fingertips. (Examples of constructs are: personality type, job satisfaction, engagement, commitment, and innovative behavior). In your hypothesis-driven research, you may need to deal with 15 to 20 constructs. For each construct, there is a specific standardized published instrument (also called a questionnaire, measure, or scale). An instrument is a set of questions whose reliability and validity have already been established. Visit this site to see some weights. This is an e-handbook of management scales.

If you are associated with a large library like an Indian business school, you will find many marketing scales in one book. Search “Marketing Scales” on Google.

What to do if ready-made research scales are not found in published journals/books?

It is not possible to find a scale for every construct relevant to your research.

You have to construct the scale yourself.

The process is as follows: (1) hold a meeting with some experts and with their help prepare as many statements as possible for that particular construct. Delete all duplicates. Conduct a pilot study with the remaining items. Perform item analysis by arranging all responses to an item in ascending order and finding the t-statistics for the two extreme groups of responses. If the t-value is 1.75 or more, the item is good and can be retained. After that, find Cronbach’s alpha for all items in the construct. If Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.60, the construct is reliable. Reliability means that the items (statements in the questions) are well correlated with each other. This is the average of the inter-item correlations. In addition, the researcher must develop a content validity index. If the index is greater than 4.00, the scale can be considered a valid scale. Search Google for content validity index.

It should be carefully noted that the questionnaire should be about hypotheses, but not about questions that arise in the mind of an innocent researcher.

Of course, the instrument should include a section that contains questions about the profile of the respondents, such as age, gender, income, length of service, etc. Data from these items can later be checked for their relationships with other constructs.

Determination of sample size

The sample means the number of respondents from whom to take answers to the questionnaires (how many respondents to fill in the questionnaires).

The sample size should be large enough. This number can range from 200 to 1000. Only a large sample is valid and valuable. Research conducted on a large sample only earns the respect of the academic and research community.

Sample size is determined by population size, expected standard deviation, and confidence interval. There are formulas to determine the sample. They are: Cocheran’s formula and Slovin’s formula. Google these terms and use the formulas to learn more about them.

One important observation is that the validity of your research will be improved by a randomized sample, but not by selecting respondents for convenience.

Tables and analysis

All collected answers must be entered into an Excel sheet. One line should be allocated for entering the data given in one questionnaire. For 500 completed questionnaires, 500 lines should be allocated. Data entered into an Excel sheet can be easily imported into SPSS for analysis.

Data tabulation is made easier by using MS Excel. Use SPSS (Statistical Procedures for Social Sciences) for qualitative analysis. Even without SPSS software, MS Excel’s Data Analysis Tool Pack can be used as an alternative. It can be used to perform descriptive statistics, regression analysis, intercorrelations, Anova tests, etc.

Report – Writing

Paragraph writing, table of contents and thesis writing skills, linking/transitional phrases, linking words, topic sentence, etc. are critical in report writing. Above all, English should be idiomatic and grammatically correct.

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