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Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs
Eggs have been a staple on the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from wild bird nests, to bird domestication for more reliable access to egg supplies, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a source of high-quality products. protein and other essential nutrients.
Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many kitchens due to their many functional properties such as waterproofing, emulsifying and foaming. The egg is an independent and self-sustaining embryonic development chamber. At a sufficient temperature, the developing embryo uses a wide range of essential nutrients in the egg for its growth and development. The necessary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and functional nutrients are present in sufficient quantities for the transition from fertilized cell to newborn chicks, and the nutritional needs of the bird species are similar enough to human needs for the eggs to be ideal. a source of nutrients for us. (One important human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), because non-passerines have active gulonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid as needed.) This article summarizes the diverse nutritional contributions of eggs to the human diet.
Macro and micronutrients in eggs
The level of many nutrients in the egg is affected by the age and breed or strain of the chicken, as well as the season and the composition of the feed given to the chicken. While most nutrient differences are relatively small, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in the hen’s diet. The exact amounts of many vitamins and minerals in an egg are determined in part by the nutrients in the chicken’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% protein, 9.9% lipids and 1.7% vitamins, minerals and a small amount of carbohydrates. Eggs are classified as protein foods and egg white is one of the highest quality proteins. Almost all the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrates (less than 1% by weight), half is found as glycoprotein and the rest as free glucose.
Egg whites, which are divided into both yolk and white (albumen), are nutritionally complete proteins that contain all the essential amino acids (EAAs). Egg protein has a chemical score (the level of EAA in a high-protein diet divided by the level found in an “ideal” high-protein diet) of 100, a biological value (indicating how efficiently dietary protein is converted into body tissues) of 94, and the highest protein efficiency ratio (the ratio of weight gain to ingested protein in young rats) of any dietary protein. The main proteins found in egg yolk are low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which makes up 65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), phosphitin and livetin. These proteins are homogeneously present in an emulsified liquid. Egg white consists of about 40 different proteins. Ovalbumin is the major protein (54%) along with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest include flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and inactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has lytic activity against bacteria.
A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipids, consisting of triacylglycerides (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). Of the total amount of phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest fraction, accounting for 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine gives another 4%. The fatty acid composition of yolk lipids depends on the fatty acid profile of the diet. The fatty acid profile of commercially produced eggs shows that a large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fat, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fat, and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fat. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) do not equal total lipids (4.5 g) due to the glycerol portion of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated portions of phospholipids). Eggs are reported to contain less than 0.05 g of trans fats. Egg yolk also contains cholesterol (211 mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.
Eggs contain all important vitamins except vitamin C, because the developing chick lacks the dietary requirement for this vitamin. Egg yolk contains most of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in albumin. Riboflavin in egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a 1:1 molar ratio. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamin D and B12. The level of vitamin E in eggs can be increased up to tenfold by changing the food. Although no single vitamin is found in very high amounts compared to its DRI value, it is the broad spectrum of vitamins that makes eggs nutritious.
Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals necessary for life. The iron found in egg yolks is especially important. Studies evaluating plasma iron and transferrin saturation in children aged 6 to 12 months showed that infants who ate egg yolk had better iron levels than children who did not. The study showed that egg yolks can be a source of iron in the weaning diet of breastfed and formula-fed infants without increasing blood antibodies against yolk proteins. The absorption of dietary iron from a particular food is determined by iron content, heme and non-heme iron content, and a number of dietary factors that affect iron absorption throughout the meal. Limited information is available on the net effect of these factors on oocyte bioavailability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg) and this can be increased two to three times by adding an iodine source to the feed. The selenium content of eggs can also be increased up to nine times by dietary manipulation.
Choline was designated as an essential nutrient in 1999, with a recommended daily allowance (RDI) of 550 mg for men and 450 mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation because choline is rapidly transferred from mother to fetus and into breast milk. Animal studies show that choline plays an important role in brain development, especially in the development of memory centers in the fetus and newborn. Egg yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, providing 125 mg of choline per large egg.
Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes containing an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. A large egg is believed to contain 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls depends entirely on the type of feed given to the chickens. The level of lutein in the egg yolk can be increased up to tenfold if the feed is modified with calendula extract or purified lutein.
The indicator of the luteinzeaxanthin content is the color of the egg yolk; the darker yellow-orange the yolk, the higher the xanthophyll content. Studies have shown that the bioavailability of xanthophylls in egg yolk is higher than those from plant sources, probably because the lipid matrix of the egg yolk facilitates greater absorption. This increased bioavailability results in a significant increase in plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin and an increase in macular pigment density upon egg feeding.
Eggs are one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s, the simplistic belief that dietary cholesterol equaled blood cholesterol led to the belief that eggs were the primary cause of hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular disease risk. Although the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol remains controversial, most studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the primary determinant of dietary cholesterol levels in plasma (and eggs contain 1.5 g of saturated fat). and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption is significantly associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cross-culturally, countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest cardiovascular disease mortality rates, and population-based studies have shown no association between egg consumption and plasma cholesterol levels or heart disease rates. A 1999 study of more than 117,000 men and women followed for 8 to 14 years found that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same whether subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one per day. Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg to the diet per day would raise total plasma cholesterol by an average of approximately 5 mg dl_1 (0.13 mmol/l). However, it is important to note that increases occur in both the atherogenic LDL-cholesterol fraction (4 mg dl_1 (0.10 mmol/L)) and the anti-atherogenic HDL-cholesterol fraction (1 mg dl_1 (0.03 mmol/L)), resulting in there is virtually no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, which is the main determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. The plasma lipoprotein cholesterol response to egg feeding, particularly any changes in the LDL-HDL ratio, will vary by individual and baseline plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Adding one egg per day to the diets of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles results in very different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. For a low-risk person, the effect is greater than for a high-risk person, but in all cases the effect is quantitatively small and would have little effect on their heart disease risk profile.
Overall, the results of clinical trials show that egg consumption has little or no effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is consistent with the results of several epidemiological studies. A common consumer misconception is that eggs from some breeds of birds have low or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from South American Araucana chickens, which lay blue-green eggs, are advertised as low-cholesterol eggs, when in fact the cholesterol content of these eggs is 25% higher than that of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in the egg is determined by the developmental needs of the embryo and it is very difficult to change it significantly without the use of hypocholesterolemic drugs. Unnecessary concern about the cholesterol content of eggs led to a steady decline in egg consumption in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and limiting this important and affordable source of high-quality protein and other nutrients could have negative effects on well-being. from many populations at nutritional risk. Per capita egg consumption has increased over the past decade in North America, Central America, and Asia, remained relatively stable in South America and Africa, and declined in Europe and Oceania. Overall, per capita consumption of eggs worldwide has slowly increased over the past decade, partly due to changing attitudes about the health concerns of cholesterol.
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