In A Defined Benefit Plan A Formula Is Used That Components of a Public Administration Program

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Components of a Public Administration Program

A full and adequate description of the program’s components is essential to evaluating its implementation.

The components are:

– strategies,

– activities,

– behavior,

– ways of communicating and

– program implementation technologies and definition of beneficiaries and place of implementation.

Proper and accurate identification of program components provides an assessment of which aspects of the program were implemented as planned and which factors may influence implementation differences.

Correct specification of components needed to assess program scope (target beneficiaries) issues was observed. In addition, assumptions about the possible links between the results of the implementation and the results of the program itself (in terms of output, intermediate results, impacts, etc.)…

At the same time, specification of program content (or details) is a requirement of the evaluation process.

Self-initiative in planning and conducting the evaluation process contributes to specifying the most appropriate and realistic content of the program. This is an important condition to ensure the effectiveness of the program (as the internal consistency of the program has passed the pre-screening) and, secondly, to make the evaluation of results and impact more effective, since the performance of the program is compared with the performance of the program. goals and more consistent and realistic expectations.

Some techniques can be used to assess whether a process can improve the design and specification of a public program.

1 – Formative evaluation: based on data collected from pilot projects and beneficiaries on the implementation of a specific intervention and provides information on the feasibility of certain activities and tools and the extent to which they fit the proposed plan and beneficiaries;

2. Checking a systematic set of procedures for “evaluability” to properly develop the theory underlying the public program, clarifying and clarifying the intended uses of the data in the evaluation process before full-scale evaluation begins.

His most important steps are (Scheirer, 1994:49-50):

a) Engage key policy makers, managers and staff through a series of meetings to clarify their expectations for the program and the evaluation itself;

b) Using a model called a matrix logic diagram, describing the expected causal relationships between the three aspects of the program: the resources allocated to the program, the implementation of the specific activities planned in the program and the expected results;

(c) refining the theory behind the program through an interactive process using site visits and available information to examine the reality of field operations and the plausibility of the proposed theory;

(d) clarify the intended uses of evaluation information, including program changes, in discussions with policy makers and program managers;

e) Use of theory in program specification. applying theories relevant to the substantive problem of the program and using data to explain the underlying processes.

This type of evaluation process is important not only for specifying program content, but also for linking program activities to outcome measures (indicators) that will be used in subsequent impact evaluations.

The term theory here refers to interrelated principles that explain and predict the behavior of a person, group, or organization.

Chen (1990) distinguishes two types of theories:

– a norm that determines what the program should be and

– causality, which empirically describes the causal relationships between the proposed solutions (including contextual factors) and the outcome.

The central problem in this case is to study the effectiveness of the program, and to achieve this goal, mechanisms are used to identify causal relationships between program activities and the final result.

The purpose of such an evaluation is to define the identification of the net effects of social intervention. Similar to goal evaluation, this approach is applied after the end of the program or the same steps.

Evaluation Processes – This type of evaluation systematically examines the development of social programs with the aim of measuring the scope of the social program, determining the degree to which this goal is being achieved and, above all, monitoring their internal processes. The goal is to discover potential defects in the development of procedures, to identify barriers and obstacles to its implementation, and to generate important data for your reprogramming through the recording of events and activities.

Thus, the appropriate use of information produced during the development of the program allows to change its content during execution. Unlike previous approaches, this evaluation method is conducted concurrently with program development, also known as formative evaluation. However, its implementation requires the design of program flows and processes.

In addition, it requires the existence of a sufficient management information system, which, if necessary, was the basis for the work of managers and evaluators.

Application of social program evaluation methodology:

A comprehensive evaluation system that uses methodologies that provide for the evaluation of outcomes and evaluation processes. In addition, the settings and working forms used in the proposed model.

Evaluation of results:

Here, results are defined as those consisting of immediate results, results (impacts) and medium-term results (impacts) in the long term.

For evaluation, it is recommended to use impact indicators to measure long-term results related to the program goals, and output indicators to measure immediate and medium-term results. Output indicators measure the effects of the program: on the target group as a whole and among u

program service providers. In the first case, two types of output indicators should be raised, with field studies or with the help of databases and/or existing records:

– degree of global coverage:

Measures the degree of coverage of the program’s target group. Both the deficit and the surplus of beneficiaries are the reason for the rerouting. The first indicates the need for expansion and the second that resources are being wasted (not eligible because the target group will benefit);

– The degree of coverage varies from program to program:

Measures the participation of different subgroups of the target audience proposal. This rate may indicate discrimination (or bias) in the selection of program clients based on region, age, gender, etc. In the second point, that is, the evaluation of the results for the users of the program, can be used to measure the indicators. taking into account the specific objectives of each program or project.

Rob Vos (1993) provides some examples of indicators that are most commonly used by program users and target audiences:

1 – in the case of nutrition programs – malnutrition rates by age, mortality and morbidity;

2 – in the case of educational programs – illiteracy rate, repetition, avoidance; coefficients of schooling and educational levels;

3 – for health programs – mortality indicators in general, child mortality, maternal mortality and births, fertility and life expectancy at birth;

4 – in the case of housing programs – the quantitative deficit of housing, the quality of housing construction and the availability of basic services. Indicators show the inputs or resources used to achieve the objectives. Scarce and insufficient resources (financially, manpower, equipment, etc.). They almost always tend to undermine the expected results.

Vos (1993) mentions some examples of the most common input indicators such as:

a) – for nutrition programs – availability of food per person;

b) – for educational programs – student/teacher, student/school ratio, number of series offered by the school and availability of educational materials for students;

c) – for health programs – the number of doctors per inhabitant, the number of healthcare positions per inhabitant; number of beds per capita and vaccines per capita.

Access indicators, on the other hand, identify the determinants that effectively use the resources available in the programs to achieve the intended goals. The most common are:

a) – for health programs – the number of medical consultations per adult equivalent; distance to the nearest health service, disposable income per family (useful for facilitating the purchase of medicines, for example) and cultural factors;

b) – in the case of educational programs – away from school, the adequacy of the curriculum and the income available to the family (for example, to buy school supplies).

In addition, the use of questionnaires allows for customer satisfaction, being a good indicator of quality, but not the only one, nor the most complete. In this sense, it is still possible to construct aggregate indicators through the construction of indices formed from a set of attributes defined on the basis of service characteristics.

The evaluation process The evaluation process can be defined as a way to find out the actual content of a public program, where it is carried out as planned, whether it reaches the target group and whether the benefits are shared with the intended intensity (Scheirer, 1994:40).

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