The Formula To Determine The Materials To Be Purchased Is How to Calculate Yield Strength of a Spring

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How to Calculate Yield Strength of a Spring

Humans have used mechanical spring action since the invention of the crossbow. Although the theoretical knowledge of the yield strength was quite rudimentary, its practical importance was understood. The yield strength of the spring is defined as the stress at which the spring begins to deform plastically, i.e. the stress beyond which the spring does not return to its initial position. It is also known as the elastic limit or yield strength. This article discusses the most commonly used methods for calculating the yield strength of mechanical springs. An accurate method of calculating strength is to subject the spring to a gradual change in tension and simultaneously look for the point of return. Nevertheless, this method of calculating yield strength for limited production springs is not viable. Thus, in such cases, the yield strength is derived based on the physical properties of the material and extrapolation. The most commonly used mechanical springs are coil springs, which are then classified based on the principle of spring action as follows:

  • Extension springs
  • Compression coil springs
  • Torsion coil springs

Calculating the current limit is important for calculating safe load factors and ensuring the long-term use of the springs.

Calculation of the yield strength of extension spiral springs:

Extension coil springs are designed to exhibit elastic properties when stretched along their entire length, ie they are used to hold attached components together. These springs are usually characterized by a hook to secure their initial position. Common examples of this type of spring are trampolines and weights. To calculate the yield strength of this type of spring, a test specimen of the spring is partially extended by applying force in small increments so that the spring expands by one percent of the spring length. By keeping the expansion of the spring constant, the strain is kept constant, which contributes to an easier extrapolation of the yield strength. The force is applied in the form of weights, which are converted to their respective force equivalents, taking into account the gravitational pull and the horizontal and vertical components of the force. After a known force is applied, the force is removed to check for elastic properties of the spring. The point at which a complete absence of elastic properties is observed is noted and multiplied by a factor of safety. The value is an effective indicator of safe load and yield strength. In order to determine the exact yield strength, further experiments are carried out by applying a similar tension to the exact point between the points of presence and absence of elasticity of a similar spring.

Calculation of the yield strength of compression spiral springs:

This spring type is also a type of coil spring. Unlike the operation of extension springs, these springs are designed to have elastic properties in compression, i.e. these springs are used to hold apart the component attached to it. One of the most visible uses for this type of spring is in vehicle shock absorbers. Calculation of the yield strength of compression springs must be done slightly differently from that of expansion springs. Unlike expansion springs, the maximum possible operating range is visually conceivable. In this case, the force is applied in steps of one hundredth of the possible range.

Calculation of the yield strength of torsional spiral springs:

Unlike the coil spring types mentioned above, torsion springs use elasticity in the axial component of the spring to achieve the elastic effect. This type of spring is used in clamps and mousetraps. The current limit is calculated in the same way as for compression springs. The operating range is limited and the force is applied similarly to compression springs.

This type of calculation can be extended to other types of springs by estimating their operating range.

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