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Supercharger Calculators Explained
Supercharger Calculator Basics…
Supercharger calculators are based on several basic equations that govern the performance and physical laws of superchargers. At the heart of the matter, superchargers work based on the ideal gas law, where PV = NRT pressure x volume = number of gas molecules X constant X temperature. Superchargers feed the engine with more air molecules by supercharging the engine with forced air. This air is forced into the engine as the supercharger blows more air into the engine intake than the engine would normally breathe under its own device. The result of this “forced induction” can be observed and measured in one of two aspects: pressure or temperature. In an ideal world, with a supercharger with perfect adiabatic efficiency, we can feed twice as many air molecules to the engine (double the horsepower) by doubling the intake air pressure (to 2.0 atmospheres or so-called 15 pounds). thrust per square inch (PSI)). In the real world, superchargers are not 100% efficient, and therefore it is possible that doubling the intake boost pressure will give us less than double the horsepower for the following reasons:
P*V=n*R*T Pressure increases by 2 times Volume is fixed Number of gas molecules increases by 80% (or 1.8 times) Temperature increases by 11% (or 1.11 times) When we look at our equation above we see: 2* P*V = 1.8*N*R* 1.11T equation is balanced by 2.0X1 = 1.8 * 1.11 (increase in pressure equates to the combined effect of increase in air flow and increase in temperature).
Here we also see that even at the same “boost” level, a more efficient supercharger can produce more horsepower, since most of the supercharger’s energy is converted to compression and airflow rather than thermal lift… So how do we translate these equations into the real world in terms of horsepower and thrust? Let’s start with the 2.0-liter (volume), 140hp (air molecules) engine. Let’s say we’re aiming for 280 horsepower. Our flow ratio is related to the ratio of our target horsepower to our current horsepower… Density ratio = 280/140 = 2.0 Density = mass / volume and since the engine capacity is fixed at 2.0 liters, we need to fit 2.0 times the mass of air in the same volume . This means we have to fit twice as many air molecules into the engine. Now suppose we have a supercharger with an efficiency of 70%. This means that to achieve a density ratio of 2.0 we need a pressure ratio of: P = 2.0 / 0.70 = 2.85 A pressure ratio of 2.85 is equivalent to 27 psi. If we look at temperature rise instead… then T2/T1 = pressure ratio / density ratio So supercharger outlet temperatures T2 = pressure ratio (P) / density ratio * T1 (where temperature is in degrees Kelvin).
Assuming an inlet temperature of 80*F, we find that the supercharger outlet temperature is T2 = 309*F. At this point, it is worth thinking about intercoolers or aftercoolers… Besides the coolers, there are radiators that remove the heat from the compressed air afterwards. leaves the supercharger. An ideal intercooler dramatically cools the air temperature without significantly obstructing the airflow and thus with minimal pressure drop. An intercooler increases horsepower in three ways:
1 – When cooling the air charge, the density ratio of the mixture increases at the same pressure ratio.
2 – The final temperature of the air-fuel mixture entering the engine drops, which results in a more power-efficient combustion process (since the power output of a combustion event is directly proportional to the difference between the temperatures of the intake mixture and the temperature of the exhaust mixture).
3 – Lowering the final octane requirements of the mixture, which allows us to add more timing or boost pressure and increase horsepower within the same octane ratings.
With a good intercooler, we can lower the air intake charge temperature to within 30 degrees of the ambient air temperature. Meanwhile, the intercooler has only a marginal 0.5-1.0 psi pressure drop across the core. With these numbers in mind, the combination of a Supercharger and an efficient intercooler results in a system with adiabatic efficiency much closer to 100%, meaning we can produce twice the horsepower of our original engine at around 18 psi. increase (instead of 27 without intercooler and 15 for the “ideal” supercharger) if you want to go through the math behind this scenario.
Once you have your compression ratio, compression ratio, intercooler outlet temperatures, and general horsepower and flow numbers, most supercharger calculators can give you more detailed information about your car’s build (such as exact supercharger gear ratios and required intake). and exhaust dimensions as well as fuel pressure or fuel flow upgrade requirements). But at the core of any supercharged or turbocharged vehicle, PV = nRT always holds. This is great information because many people have decided to try and sell water evacuation pumps, which are commonly used as electric superchargers for small displacement engines on boats. It has been shown many times that if you attach a boost sensor to the intake port of any of these “electrically supercharged” engines, those bilge pumps do not have the flow or blocking capability to increase the boost pressure of the intake mixture by any measurable amount. . Pressure (as we explained earlier) is not the only indicator of forced induction… but no pressure rise at all means an “electric” supercharger is 0% efficient, which means it’s just running at best. warm up the intake air and excessive airflow is not observed.
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