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Science, Metaphysics, Philosophy, Theology, History, and the Holy Shroud
I. EVIDENCE AGAINST THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE FLOWER OF TURIN
Robert Drews (In search of the Shroud of Turin: new light on its history and origins, 1984) provides ample evidence that the Shroud of Turin was created by the Gnostics in the 1st or 2nd century, using a crucified victim or volunteer and methods that have been lost to history. Thomas De Wesselow (Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Mystery of the Resurrection2012) and John Loken (The Shroud was the Resurrection: Theft of the Body, the Shroud in the Tomb, and the Image That Inspired the Myth, 2006) testify that the image of the Shroud of Turin was mysteriously created when it covered the crucified body of Jesus. Many people consider the Holy Shroud to be authentic, although the images are always man-made and no one has been able to explain how a corpse could have created such a detailed bloodstained image on this large piece of linen. Incidentally, Loken and De Wesselow use the authenticity of the shroud to provide a historical explanation for the resurrection of Jesus.
II. THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN MIND
The study of the Shroud of Turin has five different research methods: science, metaphysics, theology, history, and philosophy. These research methods are based on the structure of the human mind and the questions people ask.
The scientific method is the result of philosophical inquiry and reflects the structure of the human mind. At the lowest level are observations that require attention. At the survey level, people ask questions about their observations. People want to know the cause of things, the relationship between things and the unity of things. Highly intelligent people come up with theories or hypotheses to answer these questions. At the level of reflective judgment, people analyze the evidence and decide whether a theory is true or merely probable. This level requires rationality. The fourth level is deciding what to do with your body, which implies responsibility.
III. METAPHYSICS, SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY
This is an example of a scientific question: Why is the sky blue? The metaphysical question is: What is knowing that the sky is blue? Knowing the color of something means more than light entering your eye and a signal going to your brain. It means being aware of it. Scientific questions arise from observations made with our senses. Metaphysical questions arise from our ability to transcend ourselves and make ourselves the subject of our own knowledge. The question about awareness is equivalent: What is the conscious knowledge of humans as opposed to the sensory knowledge of animals? A theory or answer that is supported by the evidence and accepted as true by rational people is that it is a puzzle. This can be expressed by saying that humans are embodied spirits or that the human soul (form) is spiritual. We understand what a person is because we know everything we do and everything that happens to us. But we cannot explain or define what a person is.
Many people confuse metaphysics with philosophy. Philosophy is a method of inquiry that goes beyond a more fundamental method of inquiry. Historiography and the scientific method are both examples of philosophy because they are above history and science.
In metaphysics, finite beings exist because humans have free will. Free will means that we have a center of action that connects us to ourselves and sets us apart from other people. Finite being is the composition of essence and existence, and infinite being is the pure act of existence. In Western religions, we call the infinite being God. Theology examines God’s revelation to humanity through the prophetic religions of the Middle East, the mystical religions of India, and the wisdom religions of China. Theology involves different kinds of knowledge than metaphysics, science or history. Knowledge of theology is called faith, and knowledge of the other three methods of inquiry is called reason.
IV. BIG BANG
Faith, science and metaphysics have been intertwined since the discovery of the cosmic background radiation in the 1960s. In the 1920s, it was observed that the universe was expanding and physicists asked why. An astronomer who happened to be a Catholic priest invented the theory that the universe began to exist 14 billion years ago and was once smaller than a grain of salt. I don’t use this phrase to ridicule the theory, but because of a calculation I made using the size of a grain of salt. The universe consists of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each containing hundreds of billions of stars. The density of the universe is low because all this mass is spread over a large volume. If you compress the Earth to the size of a grain of salt, the density becomes 7 times 10-29 times its actual density of 5.5 grams per cubic centimeter. If you compress all the galaxies into an Earth-sized sphere, you increase the density by the same amount. (I assumed the volume of a grain of salt to be 1.5 cubic millimeters, and the universe to be a sphere 14 billion light years in radius. For the mass of the universe, I assumed it was equivalent to a mass of 10 to 21. the power of the Sun).
Five hundred thousand years after the universe as we know it began to exist, electrons and protons formed hydrogen atoms and emitted photons of specific energy. This is radiation that was discovered in the 1960s. Scientists now believe the Big Bang theory, as it was derisively called, to be true.
Many people consider the Big Bang to be proof of God’s existence. This is inconsistent with a cosmological argument based on the assumption or hope that the universe is intelligible and the notion that a finite being needs a cause. I understand that the Big Bang is proof that the universe is not comprehensible, which means it is proof that God does not exist.
However, the Big Bang is an object of study in theology, because the Bible says that God created the universe from nothing. This is reason to believe that God inspired the human authors of the Bible because the human writers knew nothing of the expanding universe. This is not evidence of revelation, because evidence is part of science, metaphysics, and history. Instead of evidence, theology has reason to believe and signs. We see the truth of the metaphysical claim that God exists, just as we see why the sky is blue. We can criticize the judgment, intelligence, and knowledge of those who deny or do not recognize the metaphysics that leads to the existence of God, or who do not know that density fluctuations, not molecules, make the sky blue. We cannot criticize the judgments of those who do not believe that the Bible is the word of God. In faith, we know something is true because God tells us. With reason, we know something is true because we see its truth. Faith is both a decision and a gift from God.
History and science
Scientists ask questions about existing things. Historians ask questions about past events that exist only in the minds of historians. There are different criteria for deciding which questions researchers and historians should try to answer. For example, it is a historical fact that Jesus was a healer and exorcist who did not charge for his services. This raises the question: Did Jesus heal anyone? However, this is not a good historical question because there are no before and after X-rays and other medical records from the 1st century.
The Shroud of Turin, on the other hand, is an artifact. It actually exists, and the question of how the image was created cannot be dismissed as not being a good scientific question. It’s just like the question: What caused the Big Bang? In either case, researchers should do their best to hypothesize.
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