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Community Support During Disasters – A Review of Disaster Pattern And Their Management
Due to its complex geophysical condition and poor socio-economic situation, Nepal is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country is facing different types of natural disasters like flood, landslide, fire, earthquake, wind storm, hail storm, lightning, glacial lake eruption flood, drought, epidemic, avalanche etc. In addition, due to its rugged and steep topography, extreme weather events and fragile geological conditions, it has been exposed to various types of natural disasters. Nepal’s vulnerability to disasters is exacerbated by rapid population growth and the development of haphazard and unplanned settlements.
Country houses are mostly built of wood and thatched roofs and are therefore very weak and most of them are very vulnerable to disasters such as fire, earthquakes, landslides and floods. A disaster happens in one part of the country or another almost every year.
Every year thousands of families become homeless due to natural calamities and most of them are poor families as they usually live in disaster prone areas due to socioeconomic conditions and repressive caste system. It is obvious that they are more victims as they are in unplanned settlements in hazard/risk area with minimal preventive measures (using poor construction materials), haphazard land use for agriculture and other activities.
Much of the rural areas are often inhabited by low-income communities dependent on agriculture, pastoralism, daily wages, forest products, small businesses and services. After a disaster strikes, these extremely vulnerable people are (for a long time) solely dependent on foreign aid due to the absence of community safety nets and weak government infrastructure and support systems.
The types of natural and anthropogenic hazards in Nepal obtained from the active dataset managed by MoHA (Table 1) covering a 45-year period (1971–2015) show that a total of 22,373 disaster events have been recorded during this period. . This means an average annual exposure to 500 disasters.
In 2015, the World Bank has classified Nepal as one of the world’s hot spots with a high risk of multiple hazards and disasters. Accordingly, Nepal ranks 11th in the world for earthquake vulnerability, 30th for flooding, and 4th for climate change-induced disaster risk, making it the 20th most disaster-prone country out of 198 countries. countries of the world” (UNDP/BCPR, 2004). According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) National Disaster Risk Management Strategy in Nepal 2009, Nepal loses about 1,000 people every year due to natural disasters and direct damage averages nearly 1,208 million. Nepalese rupees annually. Millions of national and international funds are spent every year spending on disaster response activities that absorbed many resources that would normally be allocated to well-reasoned national development efforts.
Nepal is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world due to its complex geophysical condition and poor socio-economic situation. The country is facing different types of natural disasters like flood, landslide, fire, earthquake, wind storm, hail storm, lightning, glacial lake eruption flood, drought, epidemic, avalanche etc. In addition, due to its rugged and steep topography, extreme weather events and fragile geological conditions, it has been exposed to various types of natural disasters.
The main research question is the analysis of community resilience to frequent natural and man-made disasters. This includes understanding:
a) the community’s in-situ ways of coping in their families as a unit and
(b) their preparedness measures and their behavior in the event of a disaster
during the research, the patterns of disasters in the study area, the impact of past disasters on the community and the landscape are further investigated and analyzed.
These activities help shape the narrative of the project, which describes the patterns, impacts, community coping mechanisms, incl. preparedness and mitigation measures
Until the 1970s, disasters were considered synonymous with natural hazards/events such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods and landslides. The magnitude of the disaster was considered a function of the magnitude of the hazard. For example, earthquakes and windstorms cannot be avoided; Therefore, national governments and the international community mainly focused on a reactive approach in responding to events (disasters) and at best preparing for them, assuming that disasters must inevitably be responded to. activities.
However, since the 1970s and the beginning of the millions of decades since the 2000s, especially since the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), it has been established that disasters are closely related to human development processes. Natural hazards such as windstorms, floods and earthquakes, whether intense, unavoidable or unpredictable, only lead to disasters to the extent that society is unprepared and unable to respond (reflecting their vulnerability) and are therefore seriously influenced. In other words, there is nothing natural about disaster; it is the result of human inaction or the lack of developmentally relevant measures (World Bank).
Thus, a new paradigm shift has now taken place, that natural hazards themselves do not necessarily lead to disasters. Natural hazards cause catastrophic events, but for a hazard to become a disaster, it must affect vulnerable people. If people can be made less vulnerable or vulnerable, a threat may still occur, but it need not create a disaster. It is now recognized that disaster risks (physical, social and economic) that are not managed (or mismanaged) over a long period of time lead to disasters. The possibility that a disaster may or may not occur depends on whether or not these risks are adequately managed. Disasters are the consequences of poorly planned and unplanned development. Even the occurrence of recent climate changes due to global climate change is due to human activities as the emission of uncontrollable and extremely high greenhouse gases (CO2, methane…). Looking at a disaster from this perspective, emergency management (response) is no longer a priority.
Such disasters result from a combination of threats, usually vulnerabilities that accumulate over time and insufficient capacity or measures to mitigate potential damage. This is reflected in a simple empirical formula:
Disaster Risk: Hazard x Vulnerability
As little can be done to reduce the occurrence and intensity of most natural hazards, measures and actions should focus on reducing vulnerability to existing and future damage and loss. This clearly shows that vulnerability reduction is a key to disaster risk reduction that should be pursued as an integral part of the program development phase. It must not be left to humanitarian aid providers to act in the aftermath of a disaster.
This is a concept implemented in an integrated approach to a disaster event, where the management cycle can be carried out through a sequence of activities/phases, each responsible for or designed to address a specific type of intervention. Disaster risk management, as a disaster management activity, can refer to any targeted effort before, during and after a disaster as a cycle with different stages from preparedness to response, prevention, mitigation and preparedness to relief, recovery and rehabilitation. Disaster risk management is central because it can promote a holistic approach to disaster risk management and demonstrate the link between disasters and development.
The relationship between disaster and development as a cycle confirms the fact that disasters, however inevitable, can be managed with adequate planning and preparedness to respond. The cycle of disaster risk prevention, mitigation and preparedness includes a development component, while relief and recovery includes a humanitarian component, with preparedness combining both types of efforts. Thus, the disaster risk management cycle consists of four phases: prevention/mitigation and preparedness in the pre-disaster phase and response and recovery/recovery in the post-disaster phase. The two phases of disaster risk management: the pre-disaster and post-disaster phases are illustrated in the DRM cycle.
Pre-disaster phase: This includes risk identification, prevention, mitigation, adaptation and preparedness measures taken to reduce disaster risks associated with potential hazards to prevent or minimize the adverse impact of a disaster on human and property damage. The goal of preparedness is to prevent or minimize loss and damage in the event of a disaster. Preparedness represents the post-disaster phase of the disaster risk management cycle
Post-disaster phase: This includes disaster response, recovery and reconstruction measures aimed at achieving early recovery and rehabilitation of affected people and communities. The answer includes search and rescue; meeting the basic humanitarian needs of affected communities and other humanitarian measures. Recovery begins after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. The immediate goal of rehabilitation is to bring the affected area back to a certain level and situation, which should be better than before the disaster, following the principle of humanitarian aid.
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